- The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. The five phases—Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation—represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools. While perhaps the most common design model, there are a number of weaknesses to the ADDIE model which have led to a number of spin-offs or variations.
- It is an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) model. Most of the current instructional design models are spin-offs or variations of the ADDIE model; other models include the Dick & Carey and Kemp ISD models. One commonly accepted improvement to this model is the use of rapid prototyping. This is the idea of receiving continual or formative feedback while instructional materials are being created. This model attempts to save time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix.
- Instructional theories also play an important role in the design of instructional materials. Theories such as behaviorism, constructivism, social learning and cognitivism help shape and define the outcome of instructional materials.
- In the ADDIE model, each step has an outcome that feeds into the subsequent step.
Analysis is the first step in any new instructional design project.
In the analysis phase, instructional problem is clarified, the instructional goals and objectives are established and the learning environment and learner's existing knowledge and skills are identified. Below are some of the questions that are addressed during the analysis phase:
- Who is the audience and their characteristics?
- Identify the new behavioral outcome?
- What types of learning constraints exist?
- What are the delivery options?
- What are the online pedagogical considerations?
- What is the timeline for project completion?
The analysis stage consists of the following components:
- Learning Context
- Needs Analysis
- Learning Environment Analysis
- Learner Analysis
- Learning Task Analysis
- Learning Goals
- Learning Outcomes
- Learning Objectives
- Needs Assessment
- Learning Environment Analysis
- Existing curricula
- Larger system
When analyzing learning context it is
important to understand that context refers to more than just the
physical aspects of learning, like the location where the learning will be conducted.
Learning context also refers to the temporal and social environment that are part of
the learning process (Smith & Ragan, 2005). The first step in performing
a learning context analysis is to evaluate the need for instruction through
a needs assessment. Once the instructional need model is determined
then an analysis of the learning environment is conducted.
A needs assessment first assesses whether or not new instruction is needed at all. It is generally ill-advised to waste time and money developing new instruction if the instruction in place is already effective, efficient, and engaging. Don't fix what isn't broke. If it is ascertained that an instructional intervention is required the designer will also know what needs assessment model type should be used.
Learning environments will vary, but generally analysis of the learning environment should consists of an analysis of at least the following items: teachers, existing curricula, equipment, facilities, organizations, and any over-arching system in play.
Student engagement or motivation is key to learning. No
matter how much work the teacher does, if the student
doesn’t work, the student doesn’t learn. The quality and
quantity of learning are directly proportional to the amount
of effort the student devotes to learning (Reigeluth, 2012).
- Learner Characteristics
- Prior Learning
- Cognitive (knowledge)
- Physiological (motor skills)
- Affective (attitude)
- Social (environment)
- Implications for Instructional Design
- Reference statements
- Contact of examples
- Context of practice items
- Response mode
- Number of examples
- Amount of practice
- Learner control (locus of control)
- Reading level
- Learning guidance
Reigeluth, C. M. (2012). Instructional theory and technology for the new paradigm of education. Revista de Educación a Distancia(32). Retrieved November 23, 2012, from http://www.um.es/ead/red/32/reigeluth.pdf
Learning Task Analysis
Task analysis is exactly what it says it is, an analysis of the knowledge required to complete a particular task. Many theorist suggest that observing masters of a task will help to determine what the thought processes involved with the task are.
At the completion of a task analysis you will have defined the goals, learning outcomes, and objectives which will be used to assess the effectiveness of the instruction.
- Dissecting Goals Into Component Parts
- Pre-requisite analysis
Determine Types of Learning Outcomes Goals Represent. Learning outcomes describe what the learner should be able to do as a result of the instructional intervention.
- Declarative Knowledge
- Recall, Recognize, or State
- Intellectual Skills
- Problem Solving
A learning objective describes the expected result of instruction. Learning objectives are "subparts of goals" (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 77). "Objectives can be written at the lesson level, the course level, or various intermediate levels such as units, blocks, or chapters (ibid).
Learning objectives consist of:
- a condition
- a terminal behavior
- a criterion
Learning Strategies(Weinstein & Mayer, 1986)
- Cognitive Domain Strategies
- Organizing Strategies
- Elaborating Strategies
- Rehearsing Strategies
- Comprehension Monitoring Strategies
- Affective Domain Strategies (Support
- Time Management
- Stress Reduction Techniques
- Positive Self-talk
Learning goals are a broad statement about the expected results of the instruction which is derived from the Needs analysis. The scope of a learning goal can describe a goal for a program, a course, a unit, or an individual lesson.
Learning consists of both a performance and a content component
- “Remember is that performance
requiring the student to search memory in order to
reproduce or recognize some item of information
previously known” (Merrill, 1994, p. 112).
- “Use is that performance that
requires the student to apply some abstraction to a
specific case” (Merrill, 1994, p. 112).
- “Find is that performance that
requires the student to derive or invent a new
abstraction” (Merrill, 1994, p. 112).
- “Facts are arbitrarily associated
pieces of information such as a proper name, a date, an
event, the name of a place, or the symbols used to name
particular objects, parts, or events” (Merril,
- “Concepts are groups of objects,
events, or symbols, that all share some common
characteristic and that are identified by the same name.
Most of the words in any language identify concepts”
- “Procedures are an ordered sequence
of steps necessary for the learner to accomplish some
goal, solve a particular class of problem, or produce
some product” (Merril, 1994).
- “Principles are explanations or
predictions of why things happen in the world.
Principles are those cause-and-effect or correllational
relationships that are used to interpret events or
processes” (Merril, 1994).
Learning Task Analysis
Smith & Ragan
- Declarative Knowledge (p. 79)
- Intellectual Skills (p. 80-81)
- Problem Solving
- Cognitive Strategies (Learning Strategies) (p. 81)
- Attitudes (p. 82)
- Psychomotor Skills (p. 82)
Merrill (p. 49)
- Emotional (Signal Learning)
- Topographic (Stimulus Response)
- Complex Skill
- Serial Memory (verbal association)
- Discrete Memory (multiple discrimination)
- Classification (concept learning)
- Analysis (Principle Learning
- Problem Solving (heuristics [Martinez])
- Intellectual Skills
- High-order Rules
- Verbal Information (Declarative Knowledge)
- Motor Skills
Rothwell & Kazanas
Task Types (p. 140)
- Procedural (Action)
- Mental (cognitive)
Content Types (p. 149)
- Fact (Declarative Knowledge)
- Concept (Category of items that share a common
- Process (Steps for an organization)
- Procedure (Steps for an individual)
- Principle (Relationships among concepts)
The design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection. The design phase should be systematic and specific. Systematic means a logical, orderly method of identifying, developing and evaluating a set of planned strategies targeted for attaining the project's goals. Specific means each element of the instructional design plan needs to be executed with attention to details.
These are steps used for the design phase:
- Documentation of the project's instructional, visual and technical design strategy
- Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain (cognitive, affective, psychomotor).
- Create storyboards
- Design the user interface and user experience
- Prototype creation
- Apply visual design (graphic design)
The development phase is where the developers create and assemble the content assets that were created in the design phase. Programmers work to develop and/or integrate technologies. Testers perform debugging procedures. The project is reviewed and revised according to any feedback given.
During the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. The facilitators' training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures. Preparation of the learners include training them on new tools (software or hardware), student registration.
This is also the phase where the project manager ensures that the books, hands on equipment, tools, CD-ROMs and software are in place, and that the learning application or Web site is functional.
The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for domain specific criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users.